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History of the Internet
Topic 2

History and Background

 

  1. What is the purpose of the internet?

    1. Examples

      1. Communications - email, messengers, FaceBook, News, Skype, etc.

      2. Multimedia - videos, graphics, and sound

      3. Information - pictures, libraries, e-books, webpages, etc.

      4. Entertainment - games

      5. E-commerce - shopping, insurance, banking, etc.

  2. The U.S. military invented the internet

    1. Arpanet - to allow scientists at difference locations to share information through a computer network

    2. Funded by the Pentagon's Advanced Research Projects

    3. Started functioning in September 1969

      1. Goal - network still functions if part of network is destroyed. Why?

        If a war destroyed a city (or hub point) of the network.

    4. node - a connection point

      1. 1969 - four host node points

      2. 1984 - more than a 1,000 host node points

      3. Today - more than 200 million

    5. Can this growth continue?

      1. No, there is an upper limit. Similar to telephones. If limit on telephones are reached, then add more digits.

  3. No government controls the internet. It is world wide

    1. Several organizations

      1. World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) - sets standards on the internet

        1. www.w3.org/

      2. Internet2 - tests advance, new technologies

  4. Internet Connections

    1. Dial up access - use telephone line for internet access

      1. Very slow

    2. High speed connections

      1. Digital cable (DSL, ADSL, or modem), wireless (or wi-fi), or satellite modems

  5. Internet Protocol (IP) - a unique number that identifies a computer on the internet

    1. Number is an address

      1. Two different websites cannot have the same number

        1. IP is 98.136.92.79 for my website

        2. An IP is 32 digits

        3. Four numbers that range from 0 to 256

        4. Computers are either on or off (two states)

        5. Possible websites = 232 = 4,294,967,296

    2. Domain - name for website

      1. Domain names also have to be unique

      2. My website: www.ken-szulczyk.com

      3. Go to who.is website to find ownership of domain names

    3. Why do people use domain names instead of IP?

      1. Easier to remember

  6. Packets - information is passed in small files, 1,000 or 1,500 bytes

    1. Routers - receives a packet and re-transmits

      1. Has sender's and recipient's IP address

      2. Routers have tables to determine where to send

      3. Routers handle up to 60 million packets per second

    2. Similar to a torrent

 

Web Browsers and Websites

 

  1. Web browsers

    1. Uniform Resource Locator (URL) - the web address displayed in the browser

    2. As of August 2010

      1. Firefox Mozilla                         45.8%

      2. Internet Explorer Microsoft      30.7%

      3. Chrome Google                       17.0%

      4. Safari Apple                              3.5%

      5. Opera                                       2.3%

    3. Handheld devices can display webpages

      1. Ipads,Epads, and cellular phones

      2. Iphone and Google's Android

      3. Called Microbrowsers

      4. Can use slim down versions of browsers above

  2. Websites and homepages

    1. A website has a homepage

      1. Called index.php or index.htm

      2. You never enter this. When you go to a website, this is the fist page that is loaded

    2. Website may have links that branch from the main page

      1. Link - connection to any webpage

      2. More will be said at the end of the course

    3. Websites vary in design

      1. Ranges from simple designs and content to very complex

  3. Types of Websites

    1. Portal - offers services like free email, weather, etc.

    2. News - website geared for news

    3. Informational website - information from government or organizations

    4. Business/Marketing site - sells products and services

    5. Educational - teach and train; universities, colleges, and employer training

    6. Entertainment - games, videos, music, etc.

    7. Advocacy - websites geared for a cause

    8. Blog - opinions of website's author

    9. Personal website - people show the world their interest

  4. Search Engines - a website that allows people to find specific web content on the internet

    1. Keywords - are the search criteria

    2. Every website differs in how websites are referenced and indexed

    3. Businesses pay money to search engines to display their website at the top of the list

    4. Most popular search engines

      1. Google                                           85.4%

      2. Yahoo                                            6.3%

      3. Bing (Microsoft - replaced MSN)      3.3%

 

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